Bilateral Air Transport Agreements

Bilateral air services agreements were subsequently extended to multilateral air services agreements. “A multilateral air services agreement is the same as a bilateral air services agreement, the only difference being that it has more than two contracting states” (Wikipedia)4. These agreements then resulted in another form of agreement, known as the open skies agreement. This work aims to remove legal uncertainty and ensure the continuity of bilateral SAAs and the development of international air services. The alignment of existing bilateral agreements with EU law is also important for the third countries concerned and for the entire air transport sector, including airlines, users, etc. Therefore, this objective must be achieved effectively and within a reasonable period of time. – bilateral negotiations between each Member State of the Union concerned and its partners, each bilateral AA being amended separately, regulation (EC) No 847/2004 on the negotiation and implementation of air services agreements between Member States and third countries The agreements, which the Commission negotiates on behalf of the EU and its Member States, are not limited to the so-called `open skies` models, which involve a simple opening of markets: the EU model also aims to establish a process of liberalisation of air carrier ownership and a process of regulatory convergence in the areas of safety, competition, the environment, passenger protection, labour, etc., which could not be achieved at national level. Since the use of aircraft within the borders of a single country makes no economic sense, it has become necessary for countries to develop a way to expand their areas of intervention. This has given rise to several agreements between countries in the form of bilateral air services agreements between two countries. One of the first air agreements after World War II was the Bermuda Agreement. This agreement was signed in 1946 by the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The characteristics of the Bermuda Convention became models for the many such agreements that were to follow (Kasper, 1988).3 In addition, certain aspects dealt with in bilateral air services agreements (SAAs) fall within the exclusive competence of the EU and therefore cannot be negotiated autonomously by EU Member States.

In 1913, a bilateral exchange of banknotes between Germany and France was signed in the agreement probably as soon as possible[1] in order to allow airship services. Method of separate bilateral negotiations: correction of changes made with 73 partner countries representing 340 bilateral agreements. The SAA covers the basic framework within which airlines enjoy bilateral economic rights to fly two countries. The frequency, frequency of designated airlines of the two signatory countries, points of origin and intermediate points, traffic rights, type of aircraft and tax issues are usually covered by soft spots. The bilateral system is based on the Chicago Convention and related multilateral treaties. The Chicago Convention was signed in December 1944 and has regulated international air transport ever since. The Convention also contains a number of annexes covering issues such as aviation security, security oversight, airworthiness, navigation, environmental protection and facilitation (acceleration and departure at airports). A bilateral air services agreement is concluded between two States Parties, which liberalizes commercial civil aviation services between these countries. Bilateral air services agreements allow designated airlines from these countries to operate commercial flights covering the carriage of passengers and cargo between these two countries. In addition, they normally regulate the frequency and capacity of air services between countries, pricing and other commercial aspects. .

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